To cope with this, one way is to upgrade the treatment plants. A good alternative is membrane filtration, specifically ultra- and nanofiltration. The term comes from the biological membrane that encloses all cells: some substances are let into the cell, others are left outside. What types that passes through the filters can be adapted by the size of the pores and the material of the membrane.
In this project, membranes are trialed at Swedish treatment plants. Parallel to this, an analytical method for the determination of organic substances in the water is developed. Additionally, it can be used to tell if any particular species are reduced more than others.